One Saturday night evening, there was a teenager named Alfonso walking along the street in his way home.
As he cross the hanging bridge near his home, he heard a clashing sound sort of a breaking ceramics and a falling glass. As he glance in their door, he saw his dad, lying on the floor, dizzy and suddenly spoke with a slurred voice, saying, " Who are you? get your face outta here!" Dismayed, yet knowing that he's dad was again under the influence of alcohol, he grab his backpack and went straight to his room.
At his bedroom, he kept on thinking about his dad, who has become a chronic drinker for almost 50 years ago when he was yet a toddler, now a 3rd year college pupil. He noticed that he's dad is no longer eating during lunch, and became quite lean. He wander what is the thing that make he's dad so high and having sort of a aggressive condition when drank. Being bored.
He switch on the television and take a glance of some channels that will may appease his boredom. Finally, he tuned in the discovery channel. Likely, the topic of discussion in the interactive show he has tuned is Alcohol: In, Around, and Out of the Body
Mr Whiskey: Hello everyone!! I am Mr. Whiskey"
Mr Whiskey: Today's Lecture in the world of science is about The Alcohol Metabolism.
Mr Whiskey: Before going in a deeper aspect, let's first identify the three most common alcohols that is commonly used.
First, methanol which is CH3OH, is a kind of alcohol which is industrial used in paints and other paint remover like Tener. Then, isopropanol which is oftenly used as a disinfectant in hospital, homes, and other establishment. Finally, ethanol is the one present in alcoholic beverages, liquors, and spirits.
Mr Whiskey: Knowing the difference between those three commonly utilized alcohol will lead us not to confusion and enable us to a better understanding of each mechanism of alcohol metabolism.
Mr Whiskey: LET'S START!!!
First, alcohol is ingested orally ( intended or not) and goes through the esophagus and to the other part of the gastrointestinal tract for absorption. Then, it will be present in the blood for almost 2 hours. Then it will go primarily to the main organ for metabolism which is the liver. Inside the liver, there are enzymes which are responsible for metabolizing alcohols, one is the Alcohol Dehydrogenase 1. (cytosolic enzyme)
How is that so?
In the presence of this particular enzyme, alcohol will be catabolize to acetaldehyde with a simultaneous NAD+ wil be converted to NADH. The acetaldehyde (toxic) may have two destination, one is that it will be directly excreted through the urinary system, or be converted to acetate ion. This acetate ion may be converted to Acetyl CoA in the liver or other organs.
This Acetyly CoA has two fates: proceed to TCA Cycle or be used for fatty acid synthesis.
These statements is true for ethanol.
On the other hand, when methanol is consumed and metabolize will yield to formation of formic acid and later yield to blindness. Isopropanol also yields a negative by- product of acetone that may lead to metabolic acidosis.
According to Kalbreath, the rate of metabolism of alcohol in adults is normally 7 g of ethanol/hr.
So what may happen if it is consumed in a greater amount and the level of intake does not play in equilibrium with the rate of metabolism?
In recent studies, there was a termed "MEOS", another system which is also does the part of the ADH1, simultaneously also converts NADPH to NADH. This Microsomal Ethanol-Oxidizing System is a system that catalized a lot of sbstrate for a reaction.
This system is primarily activated in such situation there is a high level intake of alcohol especially on heavy drinkers.
Alcohol which are not yet metabolize, is circulated throughout the body to tissues and other places such as in neurons. This phenomenon leads to the inhibition of the inhibitory center of the brain, which creates an aggression in the side of the person who is under alcohol abused. At the same time for chronic drinkers, there will be a possibility of diseases most likely of the liver like, liver cancer and hepatitis due to prolonged exposure to toxic substances.
Mr. Whiskey: So much more to be learn, but a glimpse of it will enhance our knowledge behind the Alcohol Metabolism. Hope you've learn a lot! Goodbye!!
Alfonso: (Turning off the T.V.) (Lay on his bed and happy for what he had learned, and planning something what he could do concerning his father's situation)
To be continued...
Some illustrative videos:
video by: curlduluth1
Other additional information
1. Alcohol abused lead to accumalation of H+
2. Kidney stones
3. Stoppage pf Gluconeogenesis
Methods of Analysis
1. Gas Chromatography
2. Enzymatic Analysis
REFERENCES: Clinical Chemistry: A Fundamental Textbook